Compliance with a diet is a prerequisite for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. By following the basic principles of a healthy diet, you can reduce the risk of complications in type 1 diabetes and help the body produce insulin in type 2 disease. But the main purpose of the diet is to maintain normal blood sugar levels.
Basic principles of nutrition in diabetes mellitus
With diabetes mellitus, the diet should be balanced, containing proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The main purpose of the diet is to normalize metabolism. This not only lowers blood sugar levels, but also helps you lose weight, which is especially important for obese people. The following rules should be considered when designing a menu for the treatment of diabetes mellitus:
- Food should be partial, up to 5-6 times a day, but in small portions. Have 3 full meals and 2-3 light meals every day. To prevent a significant drop in blood sugar levels, always carry an apple or cookie with you. Breakfast should be within an hour of waking up, and the last meal should be 3-4 hours before bedtime.
- Eat on a schedule, at regular hours and at regular intervals. This makes it easier to calculate the insulin dose and provides an even increase in blood sugar, without sudden fluctuations.
- For people with diabetes, dietary fiber and fiber are important.They are found in fresh vegetables. Their use does not lead to a sharp rise in blood sugar levels, helps in weight loss and normalization of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
- When buying food, give preference to lean meat.The diet should contain no more than 30% fat. Most of this volume is vegetable fats.
- Foods that contain sugar are completely excluded from the diet. They cause a sharp jump in blood glucose, therefore, are prohibited for diabetics.
In general, the diet for diabetes does not differ from the proper diet (PP). The principles of PP are taken as a basis, the purposes of which are to speed up metabolism, reduce weight and improve the overall condition of the body.
When forming a diet, existing concomitant diseases should be considered. For example, with kidney disease, salt is excluded or limited, with gastritis with high acidity - fermented milk products.
Diet for type 1 diabetes
In insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes, the main emphasis is on replacement therapy. The patient receives daily insulin injections, as it is not produced by the pancreas against the background of beta cell death. Modern insulin therapy allows a diabetic patient to independently adjust his diet, relying on the feeling of hunger and satiety. Many people mistakenly believe that injected insulin allows food to be consumed in any form and quantity. Patients with diabetes are not limited to sweet and fatty foods, eating like a healthy person. However, such an attitude towards one's own body is unacceptable. Indeed, the injected drug supplements the lack of insulin required to regulate carbohydrate metabolism. But if a specialized diet is not followed, the drug may not cope with its tasks. For example, sweets cause an increase in blood sugar. And if a small dose of insulin is injected, then a hyperglycemic coma may occur or acute liver failure may occur. For people with type 1 diabetes, diet is essential for life and health. It is compiled together with a doctor, based on the latest examination results, blood sugar levels, age and the presence of chronic diseases.
Bread unit of products
In type 1 diabetes, a low-carb diet is formulated that includes counting bread units (BU). An XE is equal to 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. Depending on the value taken, the insulin dose is calculated. For each unit of bread, 1 unit of insulin is injected. Dosage is adjusted depending on the time of day:
- in the morning - 1, 5-2 units;
- dita - 1-1, 5 U;
- in the evening - 0, 8-1 U
You can calculate the number of bread units yourself. But for this you need to know how many carbohydrates 100 grams contain. product. For example, 100 gr. cottage cheese contains 24 gr. carbohydrates. In a package of 200 gr. - 48 gr. carbohydrates. It turns out that if in 1 XE 12 gr. carbohydrates, then in a 4 XE cottage cheese package. One unit of bread raises blood sugar by 2. 77 mmol / L. And to process 1 XE, 1. 4 U insulin is required. Taking into account these indicators, the dosage of the injected drug is calculated.
Patients with diabetes should comply with the daily rate of XE - it is equal to 18-24. For one meal, you can not eat more than 7 XE.
To facilitate the calculation of bread units when building a low carb diet, you can use a separate table. It contains staple foods.
|Product||Quantity in 1 XE|
|Rye bread, white buns, unripe||20 gr|
|Milk, natural yogurt, kefir, yogurt||250 ml.|
|Measure cottage cheese with sugar||100 g|
|ice cream||65 gr|
|Pumpkins (semi-finished product)||50 gr|
|All raw cereals||1 tablespoon|
|Boiled potatoes||70 gr|
|Mashed potatoes with milk||2 tablespoons|
|Peeled bananas||60 gr|
|Dry fruit||20 gr|
|Apple juice||100 ml|
Glycemic index of foods
Another indicator to consider when compiling a low carb diet is the glycemic index (GI) of foods. It is the rate at which blood sugar levels rise after a meal. Diabetics should choose low-index foods. They ensure an even flow of glucose into the bloodstream and prevent sudden spikes in blood sugar levels throughout the day. The glycemic index is classified into 3 types:
- low - up to 50 units;
- average - from 50 to 69 units;
- high - over 70 units.
For type 1 diabetes, choose low to moderate GI foods. The maximum value of GI should not exceed 72 units.
The table provides a list of allowed foods and their GIs.
|Type GI||Product||Glycemic index per unit|
|Boiled jacket potatoes||65|
Foods with high GI are strictly forbidden. These include all sweets, sausages, muffins, fried foods. They dramatically increase blood sugar levels and contribute to weight gain, which is unacceptable in diabetes.
Diet for type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus most often occurs against the background of overweight. The main feature of the menu is the choice of products with a low GI and a small amount of XE. In non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus, diet is of paramount importance. By adhering to the basic principles of a healthy diet, you can prevent blood sugar spikes and prevent the development of complications. The type 2 diabetes diet has three functions:
- Normalization of metabolism, acceleration of metabolism for weight loss.
- Maintaining normal glucose levels.
- Restoration of damaged pancreatic tissue.
Special attention is paid to concomitant diseases. For example, hypertension requires the use of foods that dilute the blood. To lower blood sugar and normalize weight, a diabetic person needs to count calories.
In non-insulin dependent type 2 diabetes, the same rules should be followed as with the diet developed for patients with type 1 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes mellitus, if the patient is overweight, a low-carbohydrate diet number 8 is indicated. This implies a strict restriction on the amount of carbohydrates, animal fats and salt consumed. Reduce hunger by using non-starchy vegetables, unsweetened fruits and regular drinking water.
Diet "Table number 9" for diabetes
Not all types of diets are allowed for people with diabetes. Food should promote weight loss in type 2 and prevent the development of ketoacidosis in type 1. Mono diets, these diets and other types of food are prohibited, the principle of which is the rejection of fats, proteins or carbohydrates. With diabetes mellitus, the "Table number 9" diet is indicated. It includes avoiding foods with a high glycemic index and a high content of bread units. Eating according to this system can not be called monotonous, but an important condition is the change of eating habits. We will have to give up fast foods, fried and fatty foods, sweets.
Low Carb Diet Table 9 is created for type 1 diabetes. It has no therapeutic effect but helps maintain normal glucose levels.
The table contains the lists of allowed and forbidden products.
|Mushrooms||Fatty salty fish|
|meat||Fatty meats (goose, duck, pork, lamb)|
|Brown and red rice||alcohol|
|Low fat dairy and fermented milk products||Spicy spices|
A rough menu for the day looks like this:
- The first breakfast is millet porridge with milk.
- Second breakfast - natural yogurt, apples.
- Lunch - rabbit soup with zucchini and buckwheat, salad with cabbage and cucumbers, seasoned with vegetable oil.
- Afternoon snack - casserole with cottage cheese with berries.
- Dinner - a piece of steamed salmon, a salad with boiled vegetables.
- Late dinner - kefir.
A low carb diet for diabetes does not make you starve to death. The diet will be balanced, satisfying and nutritious.
Many people believe that a low carb diet is strictly restrictive and makes you eat poor, monotonous. In fact, there are a large number of recipes for high-flavor and safe dishes for diabetics. The following products will help diversify the usual menu:
- Manaferrat.The diabetes diet includes eating berries instead of foods that contain sugar. Add the berries to the cottage cheese, cook smoothies and mousses with them, add to the cheesecakes and casserole to sweeten the dish. This natural product has a low glycemic index, and also helps prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and saturates the body with important trace elements.
- Olive oil.Vegetable fats, rich in Omega-3, should be present in the diet of a diabetic. And the best option is olive oil. Participates in lipid metabolism processes, helps prevent retinopathy and slows down aging. Olive oil is good for overweight and improving mood.
- Cinnamon.It has anti-inflammatory effects, lowers blood sugar and improves the taste of food. Add cinnamon to diet pancakes, cheesecakes and other cakes.
- CabbageGreen vegetables should be present in the diet of a diabetic. And the leader among them is cabbage. A large amount of fiber in the composition slows down the rise in blood sugar levels and reduces it to physiological norms. In addition, cabbage is rich in vitamins needed to strengthen the immune system.
- Salmon.Fish should be present in the diet of a diabetic. Salmon occupies a leading position in terms of the number of beneficial properties. This fish contains omega-3 fatty acids, which prevent the development of cardiovascular disease.
Here is an example of a weekly menu for type 1 diabetes:
An approximate menu for a week with type 2 diabetes looks like this:
fried eggs with cheese
If you follow this example, your low carb diet will help you keep your glucose levels under control and will not make you feel uncomfortable with your diet.
A different menu is prepared for each day. Eat a variety of foods to make your food enjoyable.
A low carb diet for diabetes mellitus allows the use of low glycemic index and XE foods. This includes:
- black bread;
- Rye bread;
- buckwheat and oatmeal;
- red and brown rice;
- lean meat - rabbit, turkey, beef, beef;
- low-fat fish varieties - cod, hake, perch, salmon, salmon, pike, etc . ;
- seafood - squid, shrimp, mussels, lobster;
- high-grade flour pasta;
- legumes - beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas;
- dairy products - kefir, fermented baked milk, natural yogurt, yogurt, low-fat milk;
- vegetables - cabbage, lettuce, radish, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, eggplant, squash;
- dry fruit;
- tea, coffee, compote, juices, jellies (no sugar);
- soy sauce;
- low-fat cheese;
- sesame seeds, sunflower seeds and pumpkin;
- vegetable oil.
Some foods tend to lower blood sugar levels. They should not be used in conjunction with medications that regulate glucose in the body. This includes:
- grapefruit in pure form and in juice;
- Jerusalem artichoke;
- cabbage juice;
- garlic, parsley, celery;
- St. John's wort, dandelion, nettle.
Make a diet based on the foods allowed.
Below is a list of forbidden foods that should not be consumed in a diabetic diet. Be sure to consider this when compiling the menu. The following foods are completely excluded from the diet:
- sugars and foods containing sugar;
- White bread;
- spicy, pickled, smoked and very salty foods;
- fatty meats - pork, lamb, chicken skin, lard;
- potatoes (allowed no more than 2 times a week);
- store mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard;
- carbohydrate-rich cereals - oatmeal, millet, rice;
- canned juices;
- sweet drinks;
- products in fructose.
What should not be used for diabetes mellitus depends on the patient's condition. In the presence of a severe overweight, sweet fruits are contraindicated - bananas, grapes, melons. The diet for diabetes mellitus is compiled by the attending physician, taking into account the individual health characteristics of the patient.
Diabetes diet for pregnant women
During pregnancy, a woman should follow general dietary guidelines for diabetics. It is possible to adjust the insulin dose by taking into account the glucose levels. For gestational diabetes that develops during pregnancy, it is important to adjust your diet so that your sugar does not rise. At the same time, doctors allow a less strict diet, with fewer carbohydrates, which allows the use of potatoes and sweet fruits. But food should be accompanied by regular blood sugar measurements. If glucose rises during gestational diabetes mellitus, despite adhering to a low-carbohydrate diet, then insulin injections are additionally prescribed.
Diet for diabetes in children
Treatment of diabetes mellitus in children is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist. Insulin injections are prescribed, which should be administered strictly according to schedule, they are related to meal hours. An error of 10-15 minutes is allowed. Food for children with diabetes mellitus is organized taking into account the following rules:
- In the first year of life, the main food is breast milk. It is important to keep breastfeeding for up to 1, 5-2 years.
- Meals should be done strictly on an hourly basis, not on a free schedule.
- If the child is bottle-fed, then choose a low-sugar mixture.
- When arranging meals by the hour, a slight mistake is allowed. You can feed your baby earlier than scheduled.
Primary and school children are assigned a low-carbohydrate diet, which has its own characteristics:
- potatoes, sour cream, egg yolks should be kept to a minimum;
- cereal porridge can be cooked once a day;
- soups can be cooked in low-fat soup;
- in the daily diet, the presence of vegetables and fruits is mandatory.
The low carb diet for children for diabetes mellitus does not differ much from the diet of an adult.
Physical activity is also very important. If a child from 7 years old suffers from chronic diseases, then the sport is possible only with the permission of a doctor. What a low-carb diet should be depends on the individual characteristics of the young patient. Age, weight, health status, type of diabetes are taken into account. A detailed diet plan is developed with the doctor, which is vital to be respected. Parents should be aware that diabetes often does not appear at an early stage. With a secret course, symptoms may be absent. And if the child has a predisposition to this disease, then the diet will help prevent a worsening of the disease. When parents have diabetes, their children's diet needs special control.